The panel recognizes that prostate cancer represents a true spectrum of disease and that not all men diagnosed with prostate cancer require treatment. The panel believes that maximizing the detection of early prostate cancer will increase the detection of both indolent (slower-growing) and aggressive (faster-growing) prostate cancers. The challenge is to minimize immediate treatment (over-treatment) of indolent cancers by accurately characterizing the biology of the detected cancer. This guideline highlights several techniques designed to improve the identification of significant cancer while avoiding the detection of indolent disease. Identification and selective treatment of aggressive cancers should result in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality while limiting adverse effects on quality of life. The NCCN Prostate Cancer Early Detection Guidelines do not address the treatment of prostate cancer.